Providing of aeronautical meteorological information to users
Aircraft crews, representatives of airlines, airport services and air traffic service authorities constantly receive the necessary meteorological information at all stages of preparation and operation of civil aviation aircraft flights.
For this purpose, the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Center collects, processes, maps and delivers meteorological information to users:
- from the network of meteorological stations – data of synoptic meteorological observations every 3 hours in the SYNOP code and warnings on dangerous and spontaneous meteorological phenomena in the WAREP code;
- from the radio sounding of the atmosphere points - data on the distribution of meteorological parameters up to a height of approximately 30 km;
- from the network of aviation meteorological stations/centers – regular aviation meteorological observations in the METAR code, special meteorological observations on deterioration or improvement of weather conditions at the airfield in the SPECI code, aviation weather forecasts for the aerodrome for 9 or 24 hours in the TAF code, meteorological radar data in the RADOB and BUFR codes and warnings on dangerous and natural meteorological phenomena in the WAREP code;
- from the meteorological watch offices of UkSATSE - arial forecasts for low-lewel flights (from the surface of the earth to the height of 3050 m) GAMET, SIGMET, AIRMET, AIREP SPECIAL information for the territory of Ukraine;
- from the WMO global telecommunications system – actual and prognostic data for construction of synoptic and aviation weather maps, date of METAR, SPECI and TAF forecasts of international airports of the world, SIGMET information (on special weather phenomena, tropical cyclone and volcanic ash), AIRMET, AIREP SPECIAL from around the world, volcanic ash and tropical cyclone advisories, space weather advisories;
- from the EUMETCAST satellite system – satellite images of the territory of Europe every 15 minutes.
METAR reports and TAF forecasts of all Ukrainian airports, as well as WAREP telegrams about on dangerous and natural meteorological phenomena and MRL data from the territory of Ukraine are sent to the meteorological watch offices of UkSATSE.
At aerodroms, before departure, consumers (airlines) can obtain aviation meteorological information from airport meteorological authorities or international aviation data bases and with the help of automated briefing systems on their own.
In flight, aircraft crews receive weather information from air traffic service controllers and from regular VOLMET radio broadcasts. There are 4 VOLMET broadcasting points in Ukraine, each of which constantly broadcasts hourly METAR summaries of selected airports.
On approach or climb, crews receive the latest local regular MET REPORT or local SPECIAL by listening to ATIS VHF radio transmissions, or any additional information directly from the air traffic controller.
Key terms and abbreviations:
WMO – World Meteorological Organization;
Maps of WAFC – maps provided by the World arial forecast centre;
WXR – меteorological radar;
AIRMET - information on the actual or expected occurrence of specified weather phenomena along the flight route which may affect the safety of low-level aircraft operations;
AIREP SPECIAL - special messages from aboard the aircraft on specified meteorological conditions observed during the flight (provided in the form specified by ICAO);
GAMET - an arial forecast compiled in plain text for low-level flights for a flight information region;
METAR - regular aviation meteorological report on the weather at the aerodroms in WMO code form;
MET REPORT – local regular aerodrome weather report in plain text in a prescribed format;
RETIM - satellite meteorological data distribution system, GTS component of WMO;
SADIS - international satellite system for the dissemination of information for aviation purposes;
SIGMET - information on the actual or expected occurrence of specified weather phenomena along the flight route that may affect the safety of aircraft operations;
SPEСI - a special aviation meteorological report on the weather at the airdrom in WMO code form;
SPECIAL – local special aerodrome weather report in clear text in the prescribed format;
TAF - weather forecast for the airfield in WMO code form;
VOLMET - regular radio transmission of meteorological information (current METAR, SPECI, TAF and SIGMET) for aircraft in flight.